語源探訪

(アルファベット順)

corpus (n.)◆体、死体、コーパス◆”matter of any kind,” literally “a body,” (plural corpora), late 14c., “body,” from Latin corpus, literally “body” (see corporeal). The sense of “body of a person” (mid-15c. in English) and “collection of facts or things” (1727 in English) both were present in Latin.(出典:Online Etymology Dictionary: corpus )◆何年か前のこと。言葉の集合をコーパスと呼ぶと知ったときに、コーパスは「言葉の屍(標本)を集めたもの」だからだと一瞬妙に納得した。でも、語源を調べると。屍も、言語のコーパスも、もとは何かがまとまったものを意味する「体」から派生した意味のようだ。つまりコーパスは言葉の屍を集めたものではなく、(言葉の)まとまりという意味だった。

hysterisis◆ヒステリシス、履歴現象◆”a lagging of one of two related phenomenon behind the other” [Century Dictionary], 1881, from Greek hysteresis “a coming short, a deficiency,” from hysteros “later, second, after,” from PIE *ud-tero-, from root *ud- “up, out” (see out (adv.)). Earlier as a term in rhetoric. (出典:Online Etymology Dictionary: hysteresis )◆歴史のヒストリーと関係あるのかと思ったが、歴史のhistoryはstory(物語)という意味から来ているようで、あまり関連はなさそうだ。

iatrogenic (adj.)◆医原性◆”induced by a physician,” 1920, from iatro- + -genic.
iatro-◆word-forming element meaning “a physician; medicine; healing,” from Greek iatros “healer, physician” (see -iatric).(出典:Online Etymology Dictionary: iatro-
-iatric ◆word-forming element, from Latinized form of Greek iatrikos “healing,” from iatros “physician, healer” (related to iatreun “treat medically,” and iasthai “heal, treat”)(出典:Online Etymology Dictionary: -iatric )◆pediatric, geriatricの-iatric。

matrix◆行列、基質、子宮関連◆late 14c., matris, matrice, “uterus, womb,” from Old French matrice “womb, uterus” and directly from Latin matrix (genitive matricis) “pregnant animal,” in Late Latin “womb,” also “source, origin,” from mater (genitive matris) “mother” (see mother (n.1))….The mathematical sense of “a rectangular array of quantities (usually square)” is because it is considered as a set of components into which quantities can be set….(出典:Online Etymology Dictionary: matrix )◆マトリックスといえば行列をまっ先に思い出したが、もとはmaternal(母の)のmatと関連して、何かを生み出すところのものという意味らしい。行列は、その要素のなかに数量を保持できるもの、というようなことらしい。

sublimation◆昇華◆”process of purifying by vaporizing then allowing to cool,” from Medieval Latin sublimationem (nominative sublimatio) “refinement,” literally “a lifting up, deliverance,” noun of action from past participle stem of Latin sublimare “to raise, elevate,” from sublimis “lofty, high, exalted; eminent, distinguished” (see sublime).(出典:Online Etymology Dictionary: sublimation ◆「昇華」がなぜ「サブリミナル」という単語と同じなのだろうと思って調べてみた。ラテン語の語源は共通しているようだが、よく分からない。
sublime◆昇華◆”expressing lofty ideas in an elevated manner,” from Middle French sublime (15c.), or directly from Latin sublimis “uplifted, high, borne aloft, lofty, exalted, eminent, distinguished,”
subliminal◆識閾下の、潜在意識の◆”below the threshold” (of consciousness or sensation), formed from Latin stem of sublime (Latin limen, genitive liminis) + -al (1)).

tomography◆断層写真撮影◆1935, from Greek tomos “slice, section” (see tome) + -graphy.(出典:Online Etymology Dictionary: tomography
tome◆from Middle French tome (16c.), from Latin tomus “section of a book, tome,” from Greek tomos “volume, section of a book,” originally “a section, piece cut off,” from temnein “to cut,”(出典:Online Etymology Dictionary: tome

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